Friday, February 7, 2014

Athletic and Un academic
     The issue of academics and athletics will go on for a long time. In the essay “Hidden Intellectualism,” Gerald Graff has talked majorly about the parallels of sports and academic worlds. He has used himself as an example, where he says he hated books and cared only for sports. The only reading he cared to do or could do was sports magazines, on which he became hooked (199). One of his claims is that “street smarts beat out book smarts in our culture not because street smarts are nonintellectual, as we generally suppose…” (202).
     With this in mind, I have read the article on “Academic Integrity and College Athletics,” by Edward G. Lawry who is a professor of philosophy at Oklahoma State University. This article has dug into the lives of the street smarts and the point at which they are integrating into the academic world. Lawry says there have been ways beyond encouraging study to enable academically unmotivated star athletes to pass their courses. This is because academic integrity has been compromised with the increased admission of African American students into Universities and other institutions of higher learning (20).
     Fans and tutors have written papers for athletes or fraternity buddies have stolen tests for them. The athletes departments are now building “academic services” to systemize and control crucial eligibility problems (21). The athletes programs of study are highly manipulated, where the advisors know which academic programs are easiest to major in, which courses to avoid and which professors are sympathetic or not to the athletes.
 A corollary phenomenon that has arisen on campuses is the faculty member who prejudges athletes as “dumb jocks” and/or unmotivated and often makes course completion and grade achievement unfairly difficult for athletes (21).
     Another problem that Lawry states is the separation of athletes from the life of “regular” students. This is famous in the recent abolition of the athletes department at Vanderbilt University to remove “Athletic culture’ which they agree works against academic achievement. At the center of it all is the NCAA.
     Lawry quotes John Thomson, a former coach of Georgetown University men’s basketball team whom he says, “Was outspoken about the idea that benefits of the athletic life at college should not be restricted by a too-austere adherence to so-called “academic standards” (22). He insisted that using SAT scores as a standard for prohibiting a freshman from competing discriminated against African Americans. A more powerful argument of Thomson is “value added” to educational assessment. He says,   
Even if athletes do not manage to graduate with rigorously academic degrees, it is still    possible to agree that they have benefited from time spent at the institution and activities undertaken there, including athletics….they gain poise and confidence and a sense of the power of organizations by submitting to the rules and adapting to the habits of the team” (22).
     This article will be helpful in pointing out some evidence that will show Lawry disagrees with Graff’s claims that street smarts are indeed intellectual. There are many other street smart ways but Graff has focused on the sports and that is why this article comes in handy. It is just as important to be street smart as well as book smart because when the street smarts want to join the intellectual world, academic integrity has been put in jeopardy. I'll use these quotes as evidence.
Works Cited.

Lawry, Edward G. “Academic Integrity and College Athletics.” Phi Kappa Phi Forum/Vol.85, No.3
Graff, Gerald. “Hidden Intellectualism.” They Say, I Say. The Moves That Matter in Academic Writing. 2nd Ed. Gerald Graff and Cathy Birkenstein. W.W. Norton & Company. New York 2010. 198-205. Print.

Thursday, February 6, 2014

Does Watching TV make You Smarter Or Dumber?

Compare and Contrast (Naysayer critical Source)

"Watching TV Makes You Smarter" by Steven Johnson VS. "Thinking Outside The Idiot Box" by Dana Stevens.

In the article "Watching TV Makes You Smarter" by Steven Johnson he talks about how TV is not necessarily "dumbing down"(Johnson ) our society as some people have been believing. Johnson introduces the concept of the sleeper curve that pop culture is growing in complexity and becoming more sophisticated with each passing year. Good TV stimulates brain activity and forces one to think. The right shows exercises parts of the brain and engages our mind to focus on the plot. Shows today are multi-threaded dramas that increase intellect and teach us how to analyze situations. Past shows like Hill Street and the more recent show The Sopranos are multi threaded dramas that made us think critically and increased our intelligence. Reality TV changes the mental development of the younger generation for the better. It teaches the younger generation how to handle stressful situations and life experiences. Reality TV engages the mind and teaches street smarts with a dose of reality. Johnson's conveyance is that the true test is whether a show engages our minds or sedates it. To “determine what really is cognitive junk food and what is generally nourishing”(Johnson ).

On the other hand, Dana Stevens in her article "Thinking Outside The Idiot Box" Disagrees with Johnson's claim that watching TV makes you smarter and that TV shows has become more realistic and complex throughout the years. As she states,
 "If watching TV really makes you smarter, as Steven Johnson argued in an article in yesterday's New York Times Magazine(an excerpt from his forthcoming book) then I guess I need to watch a lot more of it, because try as I might, I could make no sense of Johnson's piece. As far as I can tell, his thesis is that television shows have slowly grown more and more complicated over the last two decades" (Stevens).
Stevens believes that "watching TV teaches you to watch more TV"(Stevens) meaning that watching TV doesn't make you smarter it just immerses you into watching more and more TV. She points out all his flaws in order to prove that she is correct. A process called counterclaiming.
 Stevens argues that Johnson fails to mention the not "nutritional" impact of the 16 minutes worth of commercials of the show 24 which he considers in his article as "nutritional". Johnson argued that 24 is good one’s cognitive development of the brain because of the great terrorist plot of the show. However, Stevens argues that Johnson dismisses the representation of Muslim terrorists and torture controversies in the show 24. As Stevens says, 
"Not only does Johnson fail to account for the impact of the 16 minutes' worth of commercials that interrupt any given episode of, say, 24 (a show he singles out as particularly "nutritional"), but he breezily dismisses recent controversies about that program's representation of Muslim terrorists or its implicit endorsement of torture." (Stevens)
Stevens says that the show, 24 is a perfect example of a show that immerses viewers in the ethics of violence rather then enabling us to increase our cognitive skills. it teaches us to watch the upcoming episodes of the show, which is not notably nutritional and healthy for our generation. Stevens restates that Johnson's claim that television enhances the brain causing ones intelligence to increase seems "deeply, hilariously bogus".
Steven suggests that TV doesn't make you smarter nor does it make you dumber. We as adults should decide for ourselves the amount of TV we should watch, and choose our favorite TV show because we like it not because it increases your cognitive skills by tracking multiple threads. The best way to test the  affect of TV viewing is by participating in the in the National TV Turnoff Week. Which is a week in which you turn off your TV, making you re think about the role of TV and if it impacts you in a negative way by making you dumber or not.

Works Cited
Johnson, Steven. “Watching TV Makes You Smarter.” Reading Pop Culture A Portable Anthology, Ed. Jeff Ousborne, Boston: Bedford St. Martin’s, 2013. . Print.
Stevens, Dana. "Thinking Outside the Idiot Box". Slate. The Slate Group-a Graham Holdings Company, 25 April 2005. Web. 6 February 2014.

Does anyone know if i cited the website correctly?

Wednesday, February 5, 2014

Improving out arguments

Yes/ No/Okay, but I'm they say I say tells of three way to respond to an arguement or idea .Yes we may argue that the more complex and subtle the argument is , the more difficult it is to respond . But with complexity comes orginality , where you response stands out and is noticed because of your "voice" (opinion).

The three different ways to respond : 
It's seems like a simpler move a writer can make but it also associates with critical thinking . It possesses hidden challenges , like offering persuasive ideas on why you disagree.

Agreeing is less simple then it appears to be, you have to do more then echo your view on views you agree with , you have to add something new and fresh , making your worth being in a conversation. 

Agreeing and disagreeing simotanously: 
This helps us get beyond our point view , validating both sides of the arguement rather then one. According to three ways to respond it "enables your readers to place yor argument on the map of positions ; while still keeping he arguement sufficiently complex".

the following article don't blame the eater is an opinion based article disagreeing with the question that mcdonalds are making kids fat. 
Disagree : the article states " I sympathize with these portly fast good patrons though, maybe that's because I used to be one of them " meaning that the fast food joints were all he can afford . Not only was there a money problem but many of those resteraunts were the ony resteraunts located around his neighborhood

Agreeing : fast food joints complicate the lack of alternatives when eating the article states. Have more places to buy fast food which dw don't need rather then fruits and vegtables at a local supermarket.
The article also states that fast food also doesn't give enough details on it's food like calorie and fat intake.

Something new and knowledgeable

Sometimes it seems that the heroes in our time no longer exists. No one disputes, many years ago they lived and acted in the history of the many examples of exceptional heroism. But today, in relatively calm and peaceful times, there seems to be some heroes nowhere to prove it. Heroes and superheroes ' live ' only in comic books and movies. Is this true? Perhaps there are heroes in the twenty-first century? And how to distinguish genuine hero from an imaginary? And, finally, the main question - how to become a hero?
Of how to be a hero you can't say anything. Because it is impossible to make any algorithm or script, but people who are heroes are all around us.  These heroes, as all of us go to work, spend time with family, and live ordinary life. However, in cases of unforeseen dangers they can instantly respond to concentrate and the surest way to protect others and totally unconcerned about their life and health.
           One of the heroes who might be unknown to many people, but who actually made a lot of contribution to influence others and make a change is – Diane Nash, feminist activist, leader, and the hero of Civil Rights Movement.
Diane Nash was raised in Chicago and attended Howard University, as she moved to the Nashville, Tennessee she attended Fisk University and from that moment he life began to have change. As we all familiar with the U.S. history civil rights movement began from 1954 to 1965 this period of time sometime is called: “Heroic” Period of Civil Rights Struggle. When Nash moved to Nashville, she began to see deference from where she came from, which is the segregation, separation of blacks and whites and shelve never faced this inequality in her life. However, this is the not a major reason that lead to her heroism, she was angry that people weren’t doing anything.
In 1960 she joins SNCC organization, which was a student council of nonviolence, this “workshops led by James Lawson, a student of Mahatma Gandhi's theories of nonviolent resistance. Skeptical at first, Nash found the concept of moral resistance highly compatible with her strong religious beliefs and came to embrace nonviolence as a way of life” stated the author of the article. As we can see it became a chain of influence that started from Gandhi then from Lawson to Nash and she then with the influence of much stronger and powerful leaders lead to changes in society. Diane Nash was then elected as a chairperson and a spokesperson in this organization. As a strong activist and leader she faced a lot of obstacles in her pathway one of this struggles was her and ten others students arrest  “for civil rights activities and refused the opportunity for bail”. Each member gave a trust word that even if they will be attacked they won’t use violence; they wanted to build a community of equality and liberation. The purpose of this organization to unite people who share same problem of segregation and violence toward them.
1963 Freedom Summer and Freedom Rides began and Nash was of the representative, and then it leads to another program that is CORE. CORE organization was also about desegregation, and fight for student’s rights and for their access to the higher education. Diane Nash also focused on gaining more rights, to balance the equality between race, gender, and status in society. However, those times weren’t the easiest time, they were very harsh and dangerous due to the organizations who didn’t accept it such us KKK and other mobs.  
“Leaving Fisk to devote herself full-time to the movement, Nash played a pivotal role as coordinator of the SNCC Freedom Rides, serving as liaison with governmental officials and the press” stated the author of the article.
Later she married a man who was also an activist, and together with each others support they continued their role as a heroes of history, as those most powerful and spiritual people who made a lot of contribution to society putting in danger their life.
Diane Nash was never had a desire to become of the key figures in Civil Rights Movement, the issues of discrimination, segregation, and denial of rights made her take an advantage to change it. With the help of other people who inspired her who influenced her to make contribution influential, the became more stronger, as a female activist it was very hard for her to reach success, but each change never happens immediately it takes time so did the work of Diane Nash. Only in 1964 the government passed Civil Rights Act about ending discrimination, segregation and inequality of race and gender. With all the contributions she made, Nashville became the first southern state that ended segregation. Nash’s valuable work spread through out the country and other activist began to use her ideas of pursuing and change.

The connection that I am drawing between this article and the essay #2, of how people change while they are being influenced or inspired by other people whom they see as a role model, as a powerful person. In order to be a hero its not always means that these characters have to be from the movies or some fantasy, and as according to Linda Seger who wrote an article on “Creating a Myth” and she provides us with the steps that each hero is taking. In real world most of the heroes don’t go through this cycle of heroism. But, in all these stories real of fantasies lays a lesson that teaches and showing us that to be a hero is never an easy step in life, it always dangerous and it takes a lot of courage to do certain things, especially to change.

Work Cited.

McNeill, Lydia, and Robyn Spencer. "Nash, Diane." Encyclopedia of African-American       Culture and History. Ed. Colin A. Palmer. 2nd ed. Vol. 4. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2006. 1578-1579. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 5 Feb. 2014.

Seger, Linda. “Creating the Myth”. Reading Pop Culture, Portable Anthology. Ed. Jeff Ousborne. Boston, New York, Bedford/St. Martin’s. 2013. 334-345 Print.

Blog #4 They Say / I Say

Chapter 4 teach that we need to recognize when we the writer Is talking. We need to know if the authors position if he/she is agreeing or disagreeing with what he is writing about. When we agreeing or disagreeing or both. We need to bring our own view.


1.       Read the following passage. Does the author agreed or disagree. Or some combination of both? How do you know?

In the Time to hunker down, Martha H. Peak starts her article by given her opinion of how U.S.A is digging their way into a real debt. I think she disagrees in the way America is being drawn into debt. Because we are spending money that we don’t have. She agrees that real-estate prices are helping to dig deeper into debt. In the article she is saying that bank and all the covert up that they are using. The U.S are allowing this to happen and now the Nation is in trouble.


responses of others

            Chapter four pretty much tells the reader in They Say, I Say about how to respond to someone else’s research or publications. Instead of writing about what “they say” you are instead writing about what “I say”. There are three ways to respond in a paper: Agree, disagree, or the combination of both. When explaining which you chose you should not just plainly and dully state your view point but rather offer some explanation for your choice. The last way, and often most common way to both agree and disagree is a good method to use if you are writing about something you don’t have strong views on. It then goes on to describe how you can make your opinion stronger and make sense to whoever is reading your paper. The most important thing you can do is provide facts and details that help support your viewpoint as your own. There is one problem that sometimes comes up when doing this and that is when you agree with something then you will end up disagreeing with something else.

            In “Hidden I intellectualism”, Gerald Graff argues that different types of readings outside of the typical academic structure could help motivate and capture the attention of young minds, he explains that magazines like “SPORTS ILLUSTRATED” do actually educate its readers in a big portion of students writings, when analyzing, using critical thinking, and using the students given attention to such variety can improve the learning process and adds much-needed fun to the school system. Graff disagrees that with the academic work at schools and colleges and agrees that that we should encourage students to take on a subject that interests them rather than a subject that interests the board of the school this way they create their intellectual identities. 

Yes,No, Maybe So?? "TSIS Chapter 4"

   Chapter four of "They Say I Say" by Gerald Graff and Cathy Birkenstein explains of three different ways to respond in an argument based essay. The First is disagreeing with the claim which tends to be the easiest way to generate an essay. You have to approach the essay in a persuasive way on why yo disagree. The Second is agreeing with the claim which is less simple than it appears. The approach is to echo the views you agree with but at the same time having new and fresh ideas to add on. Have something that makes you a valuable participant in the conversation. The Final way is to agree and disagree at the same time. Its the lesser preferred but your on both sides and it can go either way depending on your approach.

Exercise #1

  Reading "Dont blame the Eater" by David Zinczenko speaks on Americans intaking too much fast food. leading to obesity problems and the truth of what's in your fast food. From the lie of the calorie intake to the servings in fast foods.
  The claim of the article is that fast food is making America Fat. David agrees with this by using his personal experience of when he was a kid. David's parents were never around and he didn't know how to cook, so he would go buy fast food to eat not knowing the long term effects of eating fast foods.  He uses more examples such as facts from the National Institutes of Health and The Center for Disease Control and Prevention to prove his points on why fast food is hurting America.

They Say I Say Chapter 4 HW

TSIS Chapter 4 Summary:
There are three ways to let a reader know where you stand. By agreeing, disagreeing or both agreeing and disagreeing.
When you disagree: You cant just claim that you disagree, you have to give persuasive reasons why u disagree. We need to show that we have a piece of information to contribute to the discussion or argument. Another way can be that we disagree by agreeing to part but not all of the other statements. With this we still need to add our own points.

When you agree: You have to agree but with a difference, meaning, you have to bring new ideas as to why you agree with the statement or argument.

When you agree and disagree simultaneously you construct a complex argument. It allows the reader to have a few options on the map. You can either agree and disagree while stressing one response over another or you can show the pros and cons and not actually be decisive as whether u agree or disagree.

Exercise 1:
 For my essay #3 I chose to use the article "Watching TV Makes You Smarter" by Steven Johnson and I found an article called "Thinking outside the idiot box" by Dana Stevens that directly states that she disagrees with Johnson's claim that watching TV makes you smarter and is growing in complexity.

"If watching TV really makes you smarter, as Steven Johnson argued in an article in yesterday's New York Times Magazine (an excerpt from his forthcoming book) then I guess I need to watch a lot more of it, because try as I might, I could make no sense of Johnson's piece."- This shows that she disagrees with Johnson.

"If watching TV really makes you smarter, as Steven Johnson argued in an article in yesterday's New York Times Magazine (an excerpt from his forthcoming book) then I guess I need to watch a lot more of it, because try as I might, I could make no sense of Johnson's piece. As far as I can tell, his thesis is that television shows have slowly grown more and more complicated over the last two decades (this paradigm shift apparently having begun with Hill Street Blues, the Gutenberg Bible of the smart-TV era), so that now, like rats in a behaviorist's maze, trained viewers can differentiate among up to 12 distinct plot lines in shows like The Sopranos. (The technical term for this great leap forward in human cognition: "multi-threading.")"-here Dana first introduces what Johnson says(his claim) - "They say"

"In other words, if I understand correctly, watching TV teaches you to watch more TV—a truth already grasped by the makers of children's programming like Teletubbies, which is essentially a tutorial instructing toddlers in the basics of vegging out."- here Dana states her idea and gives an example to prove her response. -"I say"

Dana also includes some examples Johnson has written in his essay and proves why she disagrees with his examples.

Overall, Dana Stevens disagrees with Johnson. She believes that TV in today's society doesn't make you smarter.

Tuesday, February 4, 2014

Yes no or undecided. Chap 4 "TSIS"

In Chapter 4 of "They Say I Say", written by Gerald Graft he explains the different ways in which someones essay can be set up. Some ways being general statements, arguments, disagreements and agreements.  Graft says that there are three ways to express your opinion and what your trying to make the reader understand. These three ways are agreeing, disagreeing and doing both at the same time, along with giving brief examples on how to start an the different ways. Graft also states that that disagreeing may be one of the easiest ways to argue for a writer and gives advise on how to go about going against facts and to give really good persuasive arguments behind your claim.

Ex 1.
Read one of the essays at the bak of this book, identifying those places where the author agrees with others, disagrees, or both.

In "The Data Suggest" written by Christopher Gillen, He uses the disagreement approach in Disagree --and explain why. In a study done by Kristensen and colleagues, saying that lactic acid might be beneficial to resting muscle but not active muscle, made Lamb And Stephenson make a passage responding to this statement.
passage says "the argument put forward by Kristensen and colleagues (12).... is not laid because it is based on observation made with isolated whole soles muscles that were stimulated at such high rate that >60% of the preparation would have rapidly become completely anoxic."
more is said but basically they bring great detail and facts to dispute and make a valid disagreement.

How Can We Improve our Writing Skills?

In chapter 4 “They Say I Say” by Gerald Graff and Cathy Birkenstein, the discussion begins of how we can learn to determine who is saying what, and how to state your own point of view, while the reader is trying to determine whether you are agreeing or disagreeing or doing both. The author raised the question: how to not confuse the reader of your points and the author’s, and how to use proper fraises. While stating your point you don’t have to complex your work and make the reader go back to the text, everything should be simple and clear. While explaining certain point, the conection should be drawn between the text and your point, and when disagreeing certain evidence and research should be included to prove the point, suggests the author. However, sometimes it is easier to agree of what the author said, and it makes the “disagree” point go down. According to the author who says that while we make our points and agree with the author, we should also include a different point of view of outside source, or bring some new idea to support our theme. But sometimes, we tend to make two arguments while agreeing and disagreeing at the same time with the author, and then the reader comes into the confusion of which point you took. And to ilimate that we should give a straightforward sentence at which point we agree and disagree, with the steps that the author is providing us, it makes the work seem explanatory and simple.

In Exercise #1, Jean Anyon , “Social Class and the Hidden Curriculum of Work” in this article the author states both of her points by bringing the proper resources of the experts, in the beginning of the paragraph she agrees that different types of education should be introduced in school, and on the other had when she brings the evidence of  Basil Bernstein, Pierre Bourdieu, and Michael W. Apple whom she found disagreeing at this point, and she brings the other issues that lead to the future. The work “but” made the whole turn in this essay; she gives the reader the simple and straightforward answer of her opinion.

While reading the article “Hidden Intellectualism” by Gerald Graff that gives us a further analysis of exercises #1.

_“Real intellectuals turn any subject, however lightweight it may seem, into grist for their mill through the thoughtful questions they bring to it, whereas a dullard will find a way to drain the interest out of the richest subject” agrees with George Orwell

-“On the one hand, it was necessary to maintain the boundary between “clean-cut” boys like me and working-class “hoods,” as we called them, which meant that it was good to be openly smart in a bookish sort of way. On the other hand, I was desperate for the approval of the hoods, whom I encountered daily on the playing field and in the neighborhood, and for this purpose it was not at all good to be book-smart”
Agrees and Disagrees.

-“Consequently, I failed to see the parallels between the sports and academic worlds that could have helped me cross more readily from one argument culture to the other.”

-“But again, writing an acute analysis of Source means translating one’s nonacademic interests into academic terms, turning street smarts into book smarts and recognizing that the two can coexist after all.” Agrees.
I still haven’t decided which article I will use for my essay, but the main idea will include in it, an influence on people from others, and how it makes the characters of particular story to become hero, and use the knowledge of life of another person. The article that I’ve read is "Expanding your influence." Training & Development  by Dreyer Jennifer. In her article she provides a history background that people from very begging tried to influence one another in a positive way. Which worked, and in her work she provides us with several steps of how to influence person in a positive way, and he/she will learn the lesson and benefit himself. However, after helping one another it instills strength in us that we are the ones who influence the particular person, and with our help that person’s life is changing. In the begging of article the author states: Following are seven strategies that have proven to be successful. There is no one strategy that works best. Influencing others is a complex process of discovering what works for the particular person or persons you are attempting to influence” at this point I agree and disagree with the author because, it is not always possible to influence the person in the say we want it to, but we are here to encourage them and open their eyes to see things from another angle which at them end might lead to the beneficial influence. Also, it depends on the situation, which might lead to the negative influence. But we are here to provide people with only positive influence that will help them success in their life, the author explains in her article. Another statement she makes is: “Practice the "foot-in-the-door" technique. This is a classic sales technique based on the idea of starting small. By obtaining a small commitment up-front from someone, you increase your chances of gaining a larger commitment in the future” with the help of these simple rules, it is easier to encourage someone to change, and my making small contributions the other person won’t notice his change and the influence of other person, until some of the extraordinary moment will come into their life which will collapse everything and then they will apply all the strategies.
Three Ways to Respond
     This is the “I say” stage which is quite scary. The chapter reminds us that good arguments are not based on knowledge that belong to a special class of experts but on everyday habits of the mind that can be isolated, identified and used by anyone.  Moreover, it encourages expertise and knowing as much as possible about a topic at any given time.
     The way to respond to others is either by agreeing, disagreeing or doing both. However, these ways ignore interpretive and analytical responses which incorporate explaining the understanding of the meaning, style or structure. Literature and art take these forms.
Seems to be the simpler move. Saying no or not is a contradiction to the view but one has to offer persuasive reasons for disagreeing. To disagree one needs to point out the faulty or incomplete evidence; questionable assumptions and the flawed logic.
Agree with a difference
Agreeing is more than just echoing the view but one has to bring in something new and fresh. This can be by pointing out more evidence and elaborating by citing personal experience for better understanding. Agreeing adds credibility but one should avoid being a copycat or disagreeing without reason hence being a lone ranger.
Agree and Disagree
Acknowledging that clear-cut resolution of an issue is not always possible demonstrates sophistication of a writer. One has to know the audience well and have good knowledge of the issue to weigh the pros and cons.
     In the essay, Hidden Intellectualism, Gerald Graff writes about the “street smart” and “book smart.” Graff is a professor of English and education at the University of Illinois at Chicago. In a nutshell, he says that being street smart is in no way being less intellectual than a book smart.
He disagrees by accusing schools and colleges for missing to tap into street smarts and channel them into good academic work.
At large, street smart are associated with anti-intellectual concerns.
His preference for sports over school work was not anti-intellectualism so much as intellect by other means.
Sports world was more compelling than school because it was more intellectual than school not less.
He believes street smarts beat out book smarts in our culture.
He agrees that real intellectuals can turn any subject into grist for their mill.
He also says that students need to read models of intellectually challenging writing.
Students need to see interests through “academic eyes” and this is to say street smarts are not enough.
Agreeing and Disagreeing
The place where he is undecided is when he says it was necessary to maintain boundary between clean cut boys like him and working class hoods.
He was careful not to jeopardize his respectable future and his need to impress the hood.
Being less than a negligible fighter, he had to settle for the next best thing which was to be inarticulate, carefully hiding telltale marks of literacy.
He admits he was already betraying being an intellectual before he knew that was what he wanted to be.  
Had he seen the parallelism between sports and academics, it would have been helpful to cross over more readily because the intellectual world is organized much like team sports.
Works Cited
Graff, Gerald. “Hidden Intellectualism.” They Say, I Say. The Moves That Matter in Academic
Writing. Gerald Graff, Cathy Birkenstein. 2nd ed. W. W. Norton & Company. New York.
2010. 198-205. Print.

Chapter 4 of TSIS

                Chapter 4 of “They Say, I Say” is about different ways to introduce your ideas and opinions. There are three ways to respond. Disagreeing, agreeing and doing a combination of both. It starts off by saying why you can’t just straight forwardly spit out your ideas after someone says something. If you just tell people random facts without a proper introduction, they will get frustrated. Not only because you’re not replying properly by telling them what you think of their idea, but because they want to know if you agree with what they say or not. If people have an idea, they’re going to want to know if they’re right or if there’s a flaw anywhere in what they said. That’s why you have to tell them if you agree or disagree and go into further detail with your opinions.

               If you disagree, you have to give reasons why and back your idea up with evidence. You can’t just plainly say you disagree without giving a reason because it might hurt the other person’s feelings and make you seem uneducated. If you agree, then you have to also give reasons and add to their views. Maybe they missed important details. Disagreeing and agreeing at the same time is kind of like that where you can disagree, and then say that they forgot an important detail but also agree at the same time. That way it’s not saying that you completely think they’re wrong. It’s basically saying that they’re right but they may have missed out on important points or that they might be right but another way of thinking could make them wrong.

Exercise #1 Read one of the essays in the back of this book, identifying those places where the author agrees with others, disagrees or both.

Hidden Intellectualism, Gerald Graft

“Students do need to read models of intellectually challenging writing—and Orwell is a great one—if they are to become intellectuals themselves. But they would be more prone to take on intellectual identities if we encouraged them to do so at first on subjects that interest them rather than ones that interest us.” Agreeing and disagreeing

“Though I too thought I did not “dig the intellectual bit,” I see now that I was unwittingly in training for it” Disagreeing and then agreeing

“But if this argument suggests why it is a good idea to assign readings and topics that are close to students’ existing interests, it also suggests the limits of this tactic” Agreeing and going into depth on what is missing.

NEXT, “Fried Foods to the Stand”
     Many are the lawsuits brought against the fast food giants especially McDonald’s and we are yet to hear of the last one. It does not sound like anytime soon! This is what David Zinczenko is writing about in the short essay “Don’t Blame the Eater.” He is the editor-in-chief of Men’s Health, a monthly magazine that focuses on fitness.
     Zinczenko grew up a typical 1980’s latchkey kid. His parents had split up and while the father was on his own trying to rebuild his life, the mother was working long hours to pay the bills. This meant he was left to himself and had to fend for his meals. He writes that lunch and dinner were taken at McDonald’s, Taco Bell, Kentucky Fried Chicken or Pizza Hut. Meals in these places were affordable and by the time he was fifteen years, he weighed 212 lbs. The only salvation for him was the college he joined and got into the Navy Reserves involving himself in the health magazine.
     The information he writes here, informs us that before 1994, only 5% of childhood diabetic cases (Type 2) were related to obesity. Today it has risen to 30%. Money being spent on this condition has skyrocketed. He continues to say that the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention estimated that $2.6 billion in health care was channeled to diabetes in 1969. Today, an unbelievable $100 billion is used each year.
     The argument he is putting across is, why can’t consumers - particularly teenagers- avoid the fast-food restaurants? On the other hand, he wonders, where do the teens find alternatives? He emphasizes that the other problem is lack of information on what the consumers are consuming for example calorie information. In the case where calorie information is given, it is hard, if not impossible to understand.
     To conclude, he says that it is only a matter of time before state governments begin to see a direct line between $1 billion that McDonalds and Burger King spends each year on advertising and their own health care costs. To reduce lawsuits, the fast-food companies should provide nutrition information so that people make informed choices about their products
     Alongside the presentation, we watched a clip from “Cloudy With a Chance of Meatballs, I” which showed a teenager who was tired of eating sardine only day in, day out. He therefore experimented by making a machine that would manufacture some different food and was able to get all kinds of fast-foods!
Class Discussion and other Suggestions

A number of suggestions were raised as to the direction we can take to alleviate this situation.
1. Teach children to cook to help them avoid reliance on the fast-foods.
2. Avoid very oily foods even when cooking for one self.
3. Boil the foods that can be boiled and add spices to flavor them.
4. Include lots of vegetables in meals as a fiber source.
5. Snack on cheap, healthy foods like baby carrots, tomatoes and MILK- avoid fizzy drinks.
6. Walk more especially in fine weather avoiding buses, taxis and even trains in short distances.
7. Be active in sports like cycling or keep fit on your own- gyms not a must!
8. Where possible, get rid of the flower beds and get kitchen gardens for vegetables instead.
9. Put that remote down and get off the couch- potato couch! 

Essay #2 Final Draft (2nd Revision)

Christine Thomas
Prof. Villarreal
English 24
3 February 2014
A Toy-less Christmas Carol – Not for Children!
            In analyzing two writings and titles: the novel of Dickens “A Christmas Carol” and the article of Barthes’ “Toys”, I’ve come across a connection in both: they are not for children, they are for adults.  One might think of how these relate to children and might expect these passages to reach out to them – for them.  I don’t believe any of these writings is for children because in my close readings of them, they seem to reach out to adults in the aspect that they (the writings) call out for change about the way adults are either behaving: A Christmas Carol, or interfering with a child’s imagination: Toys.
Ever wonder who was the target audience for Charles Dickens’ A Christmas Carol?  I have.  In this novel, there is a man named Ebenezer Scrooge who goes about his life day in and day out being absolutely mean, stiff, rude and stingy with everyone he encounters because he is cheap.  The author describes that even the very features of his face represents that of his hardened character.  Scrooge is visited by four ghosts, the first of who is his deceased business partner Jacob Marley who warns him of the next three.  The first ghost of Christmas is the Ghost of Christmas Past; the second, The Ghost of Christmas Present; the third, The Ghost of Christmas Future.  The Christmas ghosts came to show Scrooge images of himself throughout different time periods of his life in the hopes that he would change his way of being before meeting the fate of eternal punishment by being tortured to carry his chains of bondages while seeing people he could’ve helped, but cannot after his destiny has come to meet him.  The last visitation was what scared Scrooge the most because he wound up being dead, alone, and plundered.  In the end, Scrooge becomes a totally new character and shares his wealth which ultimately saves a little boy’s life, and spares some of the poor he knew from poverty (but not from despair for the poor in this novel was internally content and happy at Christmas despite their lowly situations).
             In “Toys” by Roland Barthes, the French author writes concerning the difference between natural toys like wooden ones that allows much room for children to be completely creative verses plastic and metal toys that are pre-created to shape children for adulthood by subtly implementing a grown-ups way of living.  He claims “French toys always mean something, and this something is  always entirely socialized, constituted by the myths or the techniques of modern adult life: the Army, Broadcasting, the Post Office, Medicine…, School, Hair-Styling…, the Air Force…” (27).  He goes on to describe that even the different materials used in making the toys, like chemically-enhanced plastic and sharp, cold metal pre-shape the way toys are handled by children and how it doesn’t allow much room for creativeness verses the touch of naturally soft and hard wood – which allows the child to freely invent and create their own ideas about what they should do with the toys.
                        Scrooge, in the novel, believes Christmas is, “a time for paying bills without money; a time for finding yourself a year older, and not an hour richer; a time for balancing your books and having every item in ‘em through a round dozen of months presented dead against you” (36).  His nephew disagrees and says, “But I’m sure I have always thought of Christmas time, when it has come round – apart from the veneration due to its sacred name and origin, if anything belonging to it can be apart from that – as a good time: a kind, forgiving, charitable, pleasant time…” (36).  Even during Dickens’ narration in the story where he mentions how children are connected to Christmas, “But they didn’t devote the whole evening to music.  After a while they played at Forfeits; for it is good to be children sometimes, and never better than at Christmas, when its mighty Founder was a child Himself” (89), still portrays the adults playing these home games: Forfeit; Blind-man’s Bluff; How, When, and Where; and Yes and No, not children playing with toys (90).
            The only place I found where children were associated with toys was in stave two where Scrooge’s ex-girlfriend’s husband walks in the home and all their children rushes to their father who comes in “with Christmas toys and presents” (67).  As in Toys, which speak of wooden toys verses plastic and metal toys, there is a paragraph that even has the description of toy which is a wooden platter with a fictitious turkey glued onto it (68)!
            In the like of this novel and article seeming to be about children, there are many cartoons that also have subliminal messages that are adult content and really not for children although one may think they are for them.  Take SpongeBob for example, this cartoon has many scripts and jokes and clips of scenes that are not for children.  Some examples are when in one episode, Patrick climbed on Sandy’s boob, and when he reached the top of SpongeBob, there was great satisfaction of him having is butt on SpongeBob’s head that he even makes a laughing moan!  Another is when SpongeBob is rowing a boat and singing a love song – the content of that song goes, “From your pickle to your buns…”!  There are many others like this in SpongeBob cartoon alone.
            I don’t like subliminal messages that are adult content and being forced into a child’s mind unconsciously.  I do believe after a while the child’s mind will start resurfacing these messages and parents won’t even know where they come from.  Now-a-days, most stories that are meant to be for children are staining their innocence.  The advisory scale we have now only covers content that are obviously not for children.  I think adult content should be noted on publications that say they are meant, or seem to be, or even readapted for children, but are not.  That way parents can ponder and look for the reason why something that seems to be for children may have an advisory warning them of subliminal messages (which can be subliminal even if it sounds like something other than what is being portrayed)– but then who would make a sell if they do, huh?


Works Cited
Dickens, Charles.  A Christmas Carol and Other Christmas Writings. Ed. Michael Slater, London: Penguin Books,  2003.

Barthe, Roland. “Toys”, Reading Pop Culture.  Ed. Jeff Osborne. New York: Beford/St. Martin’s, 2013. (25-29) Print.

Dr. Subliminal. YouTube: Subliminal Messages in SpongeBob Squarepants.  Uploaded December 31, 2008.

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