A Christmas Carol written by Charles Dickens starts off with talking about a dead person named Marley, and his coworker signing off that they are burying the correct body. Dickens quickly brings us to a counting house where Scrooge and his new coworker are doing some paperwork on Christmas eve. He goes on to show how cruel of a person Scrooge is by refusing to give him some more coal in order to ensure that he is comfortable. Soon after, Fred, Scrooge's Nephew walks in to give his uncle a big Christmas greeting. Unfortunately he is shooed away after inviting his uncle over for dinner. Another incessant showing how cheap Scrooge is when a couple homeless people come asking for some money and are turned down. Not only are they turned down but they are ridiculed saying that people like them should be in Prison, or Workhouses. After this, the coworker asked if he could take Christmas off, to which Scrooge replied that Christmas is a time for people to buy presents and him lose business. Reluctantly, he is able to take off but Scrooge makes a strong inquiry about him coming in early the next day. Once he gets home, strange explainable things start to happen. First his door knocker appeared to look like Marley. Then carvings on his mantle start to take shape of Marley. Things start to get very scary when he hears foot steps coming up the stairs and then sees a ghostly figure of his old coworker. He has come to tell Scrooge that three ghosts will come and visit him. He says that he has come to warn him that if Scrooge doesn't become a better person his fate will be a cruel one.
Charles Dickens is trying to stick to the Rhetorical appeal of Pathos. All through out the first stave the author shows that Scrooge is a heartless person. His whole way of thinking and living life is an emotionless circle. On page 19 of my edition, it states that this was just an ordinary knocker that he has seen every day and night that he had lived there, hinting that he does the same exact thing everyday. We see that he only cares about himself by not providing enough coals for his coworker, yet he is on the more comfortable side. It is also apparent that he doesn't care about other peoples feelings when he states that the poor should be in jail instead of begging for money. Dickens has the challenge now to change this man into something totally opposite of what he is right now. By King's thesis he is going to try and make Scrooge so crazy and horrified by these ghosts that he will want to change his way of life, and eventually relive his tension.